Basic Material of Jamu
Good quality raw materials is the main ingredient in making herbal concoction that works. Many things that need to be considered in selecting raw materials simplicia, which are the aroma of herbs, color, taste, chemical and physiological properties. Simplicia itself can come from various parts of the plant, ie leaves, stems, roots, flowers, fruits, seeds, and herbs (use of whole plants). Simplicia can be used in fresh or dried form first.
Leaf is the most commonly used as raw materials for traditional medicine. Simplicia of leaves can be used in fresh or dried form. Picking the leaves can be done when leaves are still young (tea leaves, pluchea indica) and can be performed on older leaves (piper betle folium, guazumae folium, graptophylli folium). The young leaves have high water content, so the drying process is done slowly and also to note that post-harvest processing of the young leaves because young leaves are still soft, so easily destroyed / damaged. Meanwhile, old leaves should be dried slowly in order to obtain an attractive color.
Root is an essential part of plant stems and leaves in addition which growth lead to the ground. Root as a raw material for herbal medicine can be divided into two types, namely soft root (contains water more than 60%) and hard root (has a high fiber content). This division will affect the length of the drying process. Selected roots should be intact roots / good roots, old roots stem (not the root hairs), and root-free fungal / moss.
Rhizome is a modification of plants is usually spread on the ground and from its segment can grow crops and roots that produce new plants. Rhizome contain alkaloids and substance of starch as food reserve. Rhizome is really old usually more widely used to get a quality simplicia.
Stems / wood (lignum)
Simplicia of stem is the entire stems of plants that includes the main stem, branches, or twigs.
Cortex obtained by taking the outer portion of the woody plants. Get bark with a sharp object (cutter) and then pull the bark until the epidermal layer gradually. Bark contains cellulose fibers and high lignin.
Part of flowers commonly used include the entire part of the flower, the petals, crown and the pistils or stamens. Examples of plants are jasmine, roses, rosela, hibiscus.
Simplicia of fruit comes from the whole or part of the fruit (skin, pulp, or seeds).
Fruit leather (pericarpium)
Simplicia of fruit leather (pericarpium) obtained by peel fresh fruit.
Seed can be obtained directly from the seed with peeling skin or skin and discard the pulp older first age of the seed water content was lower. At the moment as far as possible avoid storing place damp moist places can stimulate germination.
Sap / mucus
This simplicia obtained by cutting the plant stem. Several types of medicinal plants have sap which quickly became solid after contact with air. The way of handling must be done carefully, if necessary you can add certain chemicals.
Production of Jamu
As a modern medicine, herbal medicine also has a variety of dosage forms such as powders, pills, capsules, liquids or chopped. The process of making herbal medicine is also different depending on the desired dosage form.
How to make traditional herbal medicine
Traditional herbal medicine-making is usually done by pounding ingredients in a mortar or using pipisan. After material becomes smooth, then add boiled water enough to make extraction and extortion easier. Furthermore filtered water can be drunk directly. If the medicinal herbs should be boiled first, added water to material has been washed in a pan and boiled until boiling. Boil it until the water remains half. Then cool the water, filter it and ready to drink. When the powder mixture should be made so the material must be cleaned and dried first. Then all the ingredients are chrased and then mixed and sifted. Brew the results of this powder with boiled water sufficiently and it’s ready to drink.
How to manufacture a modern herbal medicine
The making of modern herbal medicine includes several stages, including raw material preparation, compounding and packaging.
Raw material preparation process itself has several stages to the raw materials from nature is ready for use.
- Raw materials from farmers / traders
- Laboratory of quality control
Checks the authenticity of materials, material purity, water content and the content of active compounds.
- Raw material warehouse
- Simplicia cleaned (using a blower), washed, and sorted to separate feces, goods that have physical damage and the simplicia parts that useless.
Perajangan done to obtain a smaller size so can to accelerate the drying process.
Drying should see the nature of the material to determine the drying time and temperature.
Dry simplicia further processed to obtain equal size in order to facilitate the process of next.
- Dry simplicia are stored in the warehouse ingredients and ready to be processed.
Compounding process consists of :
- Weighing raw materials.
- Compounding the ingredients according to formula.
- Grinding of raw materials (dry simplicia) into the form of powder (coarse grinding, fine grinding).
- Sifting with a sieve machine to obtain the degree of smoothness according to the expected.
- Storage of fine powder in warehouse to proceed with the packaging and processing further.
- Testing the quality of a fine powder before the packaging process.
- Fine powder can be directly packaged or made into different dosage forms (pills, capsules, extract, liquid).
- Extraction process can also be done on a fine powder for obtain extracts from the active compounds.